Early Cartoons and Animations

The Enchanted Drawing
R: J. Stuart Blackton. K: Albert E. Smith. D: J. Stuart Blackton. P: Edison. USA 1900

Le squelette joyeux
R & P: Auguste and Louis Lumière. Fr 1897

Le songe d’un garçon de café (The Hasher’s Delirium)
R: Émile Cohl. P: Société des Etablissements L. Gaumont. Fr 1910

Little Nemo
(aka: Winsor McCay, the Famous Cartoonist of the N.Y. Herald and His Moving Comics)
R: Winsor McCay, J. Stuart Blackton (Realszenen). D: Winsor McCay, John Bunny, George McManus. P: Vitagraph Company of America. USA 1911

R: Émile Cohl. P: Société des Etablissements L. Gaumont. Fr 1908

“Just as Méliès could be said to have revived and transformed both the magic act and the féerie tradition in early French cinema, so, too, could Cohl, a respected Paris graphic artist and caricaturist who had contracted to write scenarios for Gaumont in early 1908, be said to have ‘reinvented’ the comic strip on film. When Cohl received Gaumont’s permission to experiment with animation, in the summer of 1908, instead of relying on the ‘lightning sketches’ or animated objects of earlier films, he turned to the more refined technique of India-ink line drawings on white rice paper. For his first film (…) Cohl made more than sevenhundred individual line drawings, recorded each twice (frame by frame), and had the laboratory print, the footage in negative, in order to produce a white-on-black chalk-line effect. The finished product, Fantasmagorie, was released in Paris, in August 1908, and enjoyed an immediate success.”
Richard Abel: The Ciné Goes to Town. French Cinema 1896-1914. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London 1998, p. 286

About Émile Cohl:
Les indépendants du premier siecle

The Hand of the Artist
R: Walter R. Booth. P: Charles Urban Trading Company. UK 1906

Booth became a producer of trick films for Robert Paul in 1899, creating such novel titles as Upside Down; or The Human Flies (1899) and A Railway Collision (1900). The Devil in the Studio (1901) introduced both hand-drawing techniques that pointed the way to animated cartoons, and a taste for the fantastical that showed the influence of Georges Méliès. (…) In 1906, Booth moved to the Charles Urban Trading Company. He established his own studio in his garden at Isleworth, London, with Harold Bastick as his cameraman. Notable among the films produced there were the first British animated film, The Hand of the Artist (1906), The Sorcerer’s Scissors (1907) and When the Devil Drives (1907). His invasion fantasies, such as The Airship Destroyer (1909) and The Aerial Submarine (1910), are entertaining proto-science fiction fables in the Jules Verne mould.”
Luke McKernan: Reference Guide to British and Irish Film Directors
BFI Screenonline

TRAUM UND EXZESS, p. 200 (about Winsor McCay)