The Country Doctor

The Country Doctor
R: David Wark Griffith (uncredited). K: G.W. Bitzer. D: Frank Powell, Florence Lawrence, Rose King, Kate Bruce, Gladys Egan, Mary Pickford. P: Biograph. USA 1909

The Country Doctor begins with its most beautiful moment, as Billy Bitzer‘s camera, under D.W. Griffith‘s direction, slowly pans over a rolling bucolic plain, eventually pausing in front of the home of Dr. Harcourt (Frank Powell), sauntering outside with his wife (Biograph star Florence Lawrence) and their child Edith (Gladys Egan). The play of natural light in this scene is gorgeous, even if the shots seem more protracted than necessary, and their beauty doesn’t necessarily evoke a deeper idiom or a set of relationships like the rustic opening of Corner in Wheat does.”
Nick Davis
nicksflickpicks

“Billy Bitzer’s camera drinks in the Connecticut scenery and you can practically smell the warm summer air.”
Movies Silently

“In Griffith’s The Country Doctor, a long pan shot starts and ends the film. The first pan over Stillwater ends on a family leaving their home. The final pan begins on the same house and ends on a view of the river. In the closing pan shot, no human characters are seen, making it difficult for the viewer’s grief to have an anchor in the form of a character that registers the missing child. [The critic C. Scott] Combs greatly admires the director’s style, stating, ‘Griffith suggests death changes the diegetic world.'”
Senses of Cinema

Terror in Russia

Terreur en Russie
Dir. and actors unknown. P: Pathé frères. Fr 1907
Engl. subtitles
Scène d’actualité reconstituée en 6 tableaux (Pathé)

“Premier tableau: L’Union des Terroristes Dans une salle en sous-sol, un groupe d’hommes et de femmes discute. L’un d’eux se présente en volontaire et s’en va armé d’un coutelas sous le salut de tous. Deuxième tableau: L’Attentat manqué Dans le salon du gouverneur de province, quelques hommes discutent. Entre un policier qui remet un pli au gouverneur. Le policier fait entrer un conspirateur qui est qui est arrêté alors qu’il sortait son couteau. Dans la cave des conspirateurs un homme annonce le “résultat négatif”. Un autre, après avoir embrassé ses deux enfants se présente en volontaire. Troisième tableau: Attentat contre le gouverneur Le gouverneur et son épouse partent en carrosse. A un pont, les terroristes organisent le guet-apens. Le gouverneur est tué, sa femme enlevée. Quatrième tableau: Le Peuple se venge Elle est emmenée dans une masure. Cinquième tableau: La Police s’active La police fait irruption dans la cave des conspirateurs et les fait sortir. A leur sortie, ils sont abattus par un peloton d’exécution. La femme du gouverneur est délivrée. Sixième tableau: La Dernière bombe Le chef de la police est à son bureau. Un conspirateur armé d’une bombe passe par un soupirail, place la bombe auprès d’un pilier. La bombe axplose.”
FILMOGRAPHIE PATHÉ

“The revolution of 1905, an unprecedented empire-wide social and political upheaval, was set in motion by the violent suppression on January 9 (Bloody Sunday) in St. Petersburg of a mass procession of workers, led by the radical priest Georgiy Gapon, with a petition for the tsar. Bloody Sunday was followed, nationwide, by workers’ and students’ strikes, street demonstrations, spates of vandalism and other periodic violence, assassinations of government officials, naval mutinies, nationalist movements in the imperial borderlands, and anti-Jewish pogroms and other reactionary protest and violence. In a number of cities, workers formed Soviets, or councils. At the end of the year, armed uprisings occurred in Moscow, the Urals, Latvia, and parts of Poland. Activists from the zemstva and the broad professional Union of Unions formed the Constitutional Democratic Party, whose initials lent the party its informal name, the Kadets. Some upper-class and propertied activists called for compromise with opposition groups to avoid further disorders.

The outcome of the revolution was contradictory. In late 1905, Nicholas agreed, somewhat reluctantly, to issue the so-called October Manifesto, which promised Russia a reformed political order and basic civil liberties for most citizens. (…) Those who accepted the new arrangements formed a center-right political party, the Octobrists. Meanwhile, the Kadets held out for a truly responsible ministerial government and equal, universal suffrage. Because of their political principles and continued armed uprisings, Russia’s leftist parties were undecided whether to participate in the Duma elections, which had been called for early 1906. At the same time, rightist factions actively opposed the reforms. Several new monarchist and protofascist groups also arose to subvert the new order. Nevertheless, the regime continued to function through the chaotic year of 1905, eventually restoring order in the cities, the countryside, and the army. In the process, terrorists murdered hundreds of officials, and the government executed much greater number of terrorists.”
Wikipedia

>>> Louis Feuillade’s La Terroriste, 1907

Griffith and Pickford (2)

The School Teacher and the Waif
R: David W. Griffith. K: G.W. Bitzer. D: Edwin August, Mary Pickford, Charles Hill Mailes, Bert Hendler, Claire McDowell, William A. Carroll, Robert Harron, Mae Marsh, Alfred Paget. P: Biograph Company. USA 1912
Print: Mary Pickford Foundation

Pickford made her career portraying young women on the verge of adulthood who were often unruly, willful, even violent. This signature had already surfaced in films such as Tess of the Storm Country (1914/1922), Fanchon the Cricket and Rags (both 1915), as well as Biographs such as Wilful Peggy (1910) and Lena and the Geese (1912). Remarkably, Pickford had even played M’liss before [i.e. before her 1918 film M’liss]. The School Teacher and the Waif (1912), a D. W. Griffith one-reeler, is based, like the 1918 feature, on Bret Harte‘s 1863 novelette ‘M’liss’.
Christel Schmidt: Mary Pickford Films on DVD
GALE ACADEMIC ONEFILE

“Bret Harte (born Francis Brett Hart; August 25, 1836 – May 5, 1902) was an American short story writer and poet, best remembered for his short fiction featuring miners, gamblers, and other romantic figures of the California Gold Rush. In a career spanning more than four decades, he wrote poetry, plays, lectures, book reviews, editorials, and magazine sketches in addition to fiction. As he moved from California to the eastern U.S. to Europe, he incorporated new subjects and characters into his stories, but his Gold Rush tales have been the works most often reprinted, adapted, and admired.”
Wikipedia

Lena and the Geese
R: David W. Griffith. B: Mary Pickford. K: G.W. Bitzer. D: Mary Pickford, J. Jiquel Lanoe, Kate Bruce, Mae Marsh, Edwin August, Claire McDowell, W. Chrystie Miller, Christy Cabanne. P: Biograph Company. USA 1912

My Baby
R: David W. Griffith. B: Anita Loos. K: G.W. Bitzer. D: Mary Pickford, Henry B. Walthall, Eldean Steuart, W. Chrystie Miller, Alfred Paget, Madge Kirby, Lionel Barrymore, Elmer Booth, Kate Bruce, Lillian Gish, Dorothy Gish, Walter Miller. P: Biograph Company. USA 1912
Print: Mary Pickford Foundation

“Mary soaked it all in. As Griffith would later say, “I found she was thirsty for work and information. She could not be driven from the studio while work was going on.” That drive actually evolved; what was at first just a job soon became a passion and she immersed herself in learning every aspect of filmmaking. Mary’s strong sense of professionalism mandated that whatever she did, she was going to do it as well as or better than anyone else. Yet no one worked harder than Griffith. He often started days before dawn heading to a location, spent his afternoons and early evenings shooting interiors at the studio and stayed as late as midnight watching the previous day’s work. However, Mary put in long hours too. She befriended the cameraman Billy Bitzer and together they tested how various make-ups photographed on her as well as the impact of changing the position of the lights, using rudimentary reflectors such as oil cloth and white gravel. The art of filmmaking was advancing on a daily basis and the fact they were working in relative obscurity encouraged experimentation.”
Mary Pickford Foundation

>>> Griffith and Pickford (1)

Griffith and Pickford (1)

The Mountaineer’s Honor
R: David W. Griffith. B: D.W. Griffith, Frank E. Woods. K: G.W. Bitzer. D: Mary Pickford, Owen Moore, James Kirkwood, Kate Bruce, George Nichols, Arthur V. Johnson, Anthony O’Sullivan. P: Biograph Company. USA 1909
Print: Mary Pickford Foundation

“No major star within the silent era can match the career longevity of Mary Pickford. Starting at Biograph in 1909, she established herself as a leading performer with her first films and went on to become the industry’s biggest female star for the next two decades. Compelling onscreen, Pickford was equally adept at controlling the aspects of stardom that extend beyond the screen. A consummate businesswoman, she capitalized on her popularity from early on, negotiating favorable terms of employment and, eventually, considerable creative control. She achieved a degree of power most stars during the period could not hope to possess. Pickford began acting as a child in Canadian theatrical productions before moving on to the New York stage under the tutelage of the impresario David Belasco in 1907. Switching to films two years later, she made a strong impression at Biograph, particularly as a comedienne. Even though the names of film performers were not made known to the public at that time, fans soon christened Pickford ‘Little Mary’; she parlayed that recognition into a series of increasingly lucrative contracts, moving from one company to another, and commanding a salary of several thousand dollars a week in the process.”
FILM REFERENCE

To Save Her Soul
R: David W. Griffith. B: David W. Griffith. K: G.W. Bitzer, Arthur Marvin. D: Arthur V. Johnson, Mary Pickford, Caroline Harris, George Nichols, Kate Bruce, Frank Evans. P: Biograph Company. USA 1909
Print: Mary Pickford Foundation

“To Mary, Griffith appeared to be the ultimate authority figure, yet he had only been directing films for less than a year when she arrived. Born on a Kentucky farm, he had moved to Louisville after his father’s death when Griffith was seven. As a young teenager Griffith worked a variety of jobs to help support his mother and six siblings, including acting on the Louisville stage where he claimed he carried a spear for ‘the divine Sarah Bernhardt.’ He was soon on the road, spending more than a decade traveling through the American hinterlands with different stage companies, acting and trying to be writer. To keep the wolf from the door, as he put it, he joined the Bronx-based Edison Company in 1907 and jumped to Biograph the following year. After several months acting and writing, he was approached to direct and, while he needed to be reassured he could return to acting if it didn’t work out, he quickly found his métier. All those years of learning stagecraft, story arcs and characterizations came together and in part because he was so thoroughly immersed in theatrical conventions, he was free to leave some of them behind as his techniques evolved. New as he was in a chronological sense, Griffith had already directed 100 one-reelers by the time Pickford arrived at his doorstep. He was only in his mid-thirties, but he cultivated the airs of a southern gentleman with Victorian manners. At Biograph, one of the first things the 16-year-old Pickford had to get used to was people calling each other by their first names, although no one called D.W. Griffith anything but Mr. Griffith. He, in turn, called her ‘Pickford’ once he started remembering her name.”
Mary Pickford Foundation

Wilful Peggy
R: David W. Griffith. B: Frank E. Woods. K: G.W. Bitzer. D: Mary Pickford, Clara T. Bracy, Henry B. Walthall, Claire McDowell, Kate Bruce, Francis J. Grandon. P: Biograph Company. USA 1910
Print: Mary Pickford Foundation

“The Griffith method was to gather his company around him while he sat on the stage, explain the action and then rehearse scenes. Once he was sure everyone knew what was expected, the film was shot. ‘To stop the camera in those days,’ Mary said, ‘was unheard of.’ Wasting film was wasting money; it cost two cents a foot. And in part because Griffith was paid a bonus for every foot of film he produced, movies were turned out quickly. Mary was comfortable with rehearsals, but to get used to playing to the camera instead of an audience, she practiced her expressions in front of a mirror over and over again.”
Mary Pickford Foundation

>>> Griffith and Pickford (2)

More Griffith & Pickford on this website:

A Beast at Bay
A Feud in the Kentucky Hills
An Arcadian Maid
As It Is in Life
Friends
Pippa Passes
Ramona
The Country Doctor
The Lonely Villa
The Mender of Nets
The New York Hat
The Sealed Room
The Unchanging Sea
The Usurer
The Violin Maker of Cremona
They Would Elope

The Impetuosity of Youth

They Would Elope
R: David W. Griffith. B: Stanner E.V. Taylor. K: G.W. Bitzer, Percy Higginson. D: Billy Quirk, Mary Pickford, James Kirkwood. Kate Bruce. P: Biograph. USA 1909
Print: Mary Pickford Institute for Film Education / film collection
#ModernizingTheSilents
(Score by Phillip Peterson)

“Love has ever laughed at locksmiths, but on this particular occasion the laugh is on Cupid, for that chubby archer certainly miscalculated in arranging the program of the romance of Harry and Bessie. Still the episode will be looked upon in after days as a decidedly strenuous page in their life’s history, and one need not be possessed of an excessively keen sense of humor to appreciate its comedy value. Harry and Bessie loved each other with all the impetuosity of youth, and during one of the many occasions when they pledge undying affection, are surprised by Papa, who, in spirit of jest, pretends to be highly enraged at their presumption, apparently treating them as mere kids. Papa out of the way, they resent being treated as children and plan to elope.”
Silent Era

“In her first year she (Mary Pickford) started getting notices. In the August 21, 1909, issue of the ‘New York Dramatic Mirror’, she is singled out in the review of the Biograph film They Would Elope: ‘This delicious little comedy introduces again an ingénue whose work in Biograph pictures is attracting attention.’ Her work attracted such attention that she supplanted Florence Lawrence as the public-invented Biograph girl. And in England, lacking an official name, she was given one by the British: Dorothy Nicholson. After Carl Laemmle temporarily lured her away from Biograph and gave pubilicity to the Pickford name, the secret was out (…).”
James Card: The films of Mary Pickford. In: Christel Schmidt: Mary Pickford: Queen of the Movies. University Press of Kentucky 2012, p. 216

>>> Griffith 1909

>>> Mary Pickford

Amundsen, conquering the South Pole

Roald Amundsens ekspedisjon til sydpolen 1910-1912
(Roald Amundsen’s expedition to the South Pole 1910-1912)
Documentary footage
K: Kristian Prestrud. P: Norsk Kinematograf Aktieselskab. No 1912
Print: Nasjonalbiblioteket Oslo / National Library of Norway

Documentary heritage submitted by Norway and recommended for inclusion in the Memory of the World Register in 2005
Roald Amundsen and his 4-man team reached the South Pole, with the help of polar dogs, on 14 December 1911. The expedition, and particularly the dog-sled journey to the Pole, is described as daring and with an exceptionally good logistic planning and execution. (…)
The film collection is unique, as it documents the important events of this first expedition to reach the South Pole. Though the material is incomplete, it is made up of original sequences, filmed between 1910 and 1912, consisting of negative film and first and second-generation print material.”
Memory of the World

“Since the 1980s a short English version has been available but maybe not very well-known. Now the original material has been restored and reconstructed properly. – Also Shackleton shot South Pole footage before and after Amundsen. Scott filmed South Pole footage simultaneously with Amundsen. Penguins were a favourite motif with all.”
Antti Alanen: Film Diary

“Roald Amundsen was not the first Norwegian to film a polar expedition. In 1898, Carsten Borchgrevink, as leader of an English expedition, brought a film camera to Antarctica, only two or three years after the Lumière brothers had shown their first films in Paris. It was Borchgrevink’s affluent sponsor, the publisher George Newnes, who believed in film as a news medium and sent a camera from England. The scenes from the departure are found in the British Film Institute, but no more film recordings were made. Borchgrevink and his photographer, the scientist Louis Bernacchi, were the first to discover that the film camera was not fit for use in cold regions.(…) After 1898, both the mechanics and the film stock were improved. The American expedition leader Anthony Fiala, who was hired as a photographer on the first Ziegler expedition and who led the second Ziegler expedition headed for the North Pole in 1901–5, wrapped the camera up in warm blankets before filming.

When Amundsen set out on his South Pole expedition, most of the technical problems related to filming in extremely cold temperatures had been solved. From this expedition, Amundsen and his team secured moving images of life onboard the polar vessel Fram, of activities around the base Framheim, of the departure with a dog team headed for the pole and animal life in Antarctica, with penguins as a central motif. (…)  Hugo Hermansen edited a version that could be shown independently in cinemas. Hermansen was the director of the cinema company Aktieselskapet Kino and a well-known figure in the capital, and owned cinemas throughout the country. At that time is was common for cinema owners to procure the films for their theaters, and he had personally equipped Amundsen with both rolls of film and a camera. He also edited the final version of the film.”
Jan Anders Diesen: A Century of Polar Expedition Films: From Roald Amundsen to Børge Ousland. In: Eirik Frisvold Hanssen and Maria Fosheim Lund (ed.): Small Country, Long Journeys. Norwegian Expedition Films. Nasjonalbiblioteket Oslo 2017, p. 94-95

Further Reading: The South Pole Expedition, Fram, 1910-12

The short (14 min.) “German Version” of the same footage:

Roald Amundsen’s expedition to the South Pole 1910-1912
K: Kristian Prestrud. P: Norsk Kinematograf Aktieselskab. No 1912
Print: Nasjonalbiblioteket Oslo / National Library of Norway
German intertitles

>>> EARLY DOCUMENTARY FILMS II (Nature/Science)

Winter Sports in Malmö, 1912

Vintersport i Malmö
P: Frans Lundberg, Malmö. Sw 1912

“The story of Swedish film production begins not in Stockholm but in the southern province of Skåne at the beginning of the century, when the first regular cinema theaters were established. The first public showing of moving pictures took place in Malmö in June 1896. The company Svenska Biografteatern (Svenska Bio for short) was founded in 1907 by some businessmen In Kristianstad, the second-largest city in the province. (…) they soon recognized the importance of producing their own films and hired a cinematographer, Robert Olsson, who traveled around making short documentaries. Later the company managed to hire a second skilled cinematographer from Göteborg, Charles Magnusson, who successfully organized their entire production for the following two decades. In Malmö another cinema owner, Frans Lundberg, began film production activities around 1910.
Svenska Bio’s productions were intended primarily for a Swedish audience and had high cultural aspirations. The company soon engaged people from the established stages, most notably the Royal Dramatic Theater in Stockholm. Frans Lundberg’s aim was more international and sensational, and many of his films were produced in Denmark with Danish actors. When the Swedish Board of Film Censors was established in 1911, many of Lundberg’s films encountered difficulties or were banned outright, which eventually forced him to halt production.”
Per Olov Qvist, Peter von Bagh: Guide to the Cinema of Sweden and Finland. Greenwood Publishing Group 2000, p. 5

More about the beginnings of Swedish film production:

>>> Pathé in Sweden

>>> Georg af Klercker-01

Cecil B. DeMille: Joan the Woman

Joan the Woman
R: Cecil B. DeMille. B: Jeanie Macpherson, William C. de Mille. K: Alvin Wyckoff. D: Geraldine Farrar, Raymond Hatton, Hobart Bosworth, Wallace Reid, Theodore Roberts, Tully Marshall, Walter Long, Cleo Ridgely, Horace B. Carpenter, Ernest Joy, William Elmer. P: Paramount Pictures. USA 1916
Print: George Eastman Museum

Cecil B. DeMille’s first feature-length epic is an exercise in equivocation. Joan the Woman (1916) attempts to tell the story of a woman whose chosen path in life is inherently defiant of the gender norms of both her time and that of the film’s audience, while at the same time using the Maid of Orleans to reinforce the value of feminine-patriotic virtues. Joan the Woman follows the popular story of Joan of Arc, portrayed here by Geraldine Farrar, from her departure from Domremy to her arrival at the court of Charles VII of France, where she convinces the dauphin to put her at the head of an army to oust the English from France. Her subsequent victory at Orleans comprises roughly twenty minutes of the two-and-a-half hour film. After Charles’s coronation at Reims, however, the film departs from the documented history dramatically. Joan is captured at Compiegne only because of the betrayal of her English suitor, Eric Trent. The Maid’s fictional love interest attempts to redeem himself through a daring rescue, but ultimately fails. Joan is led to her inevitable death at the stake in Rouen. Watching her burn, Trent laments, ‘We have killed a saint!’ and the villainous Cauchon is led away in disgust before she is dead.

Framing this version of Joan’s story is a prologue and epilogue that takes place in the trenches of World War I in France. English soldiers keep watch over the parapets for any signs of a German attack, though as the audience is introduced to the story all is fairly quiet. Here, Eric Trent has supposedly been reincarnated as an English officer. In the dugout, he pulls an ancient sword from the wall and wonders ‘what queer old chap’ once carried it into battle. Moments later, the armored apparition of Joan of Arc appears behind him to inform him that the time has come to expiate his sins against her. After Joan’s story is told, Trent goes on a suicide mission to destroy a German trench. His mission is a success, and as he lays dying Joan once more appears and all is seemingly forgiven.

While the film was met with generally positive reviews, it was a box office disappointment. DeMille had a $300,000 budget, partially as a result of the success of D.W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation (1915). Griffith’s film, which was an expensive but epic story, grossed at least $20 million. The Birth of a Nation emboldened fledgling studios to invest great amounts of capital into large film productions; audiences were willing to sit through multi-hour historical epics. Joan, bringing in only $600,000, was an unexpected failure. (…)

The film seemingly appealed to mostly those of the upper or middle classes. It is these people who were likely well-versed in Joan’s history, though perhaps more in folklore than the actual historical record detailing Joan’s deeds. Despite the medieval documentation we have detailing Joan’s post-Domremy life and her death, DeMille and screenwriter Jeannie MacPherson consulted only the Encyclopedia Britannica and biographies of Charles VII and Louis XI, as attested in the screenplay’s margins. The main source that served as inspiration for Joan the Woman was Friedrich Schiller’s 1801 play Maid of Orleans, in which Joan of Arc refrains from killing an English soldier when she falls in love with him. DeMille and MacPherson took Schiller’s soldier as inspiration for their character Eric Trent. (…)  By the time the film was released in the United States, the war had been raging for two years, leaving many millions dead. Releasing a film about the English occupation of France at a time when French and English men were fighting side-by-side was not feasible for the politics of wartime. By inspiring Trent to destroy the German trench, DeMille’s Joan demonstrates that old grievances are dead in the face of a new enemy.”
Patrick Duff
Medieval Hollywood

642-Joan the Woman
Commissioned by the United States Department of the Treasury, Haskell Coffin created this poster in 1918. Feeding off the popularization of Joan of Arc in American culture, Haskell uses the imagine of Joan of Arc to encourage women to buy War Savings Stamps in order to save their country, much as Joan of Arc saved France. (Nicole Powell: Joan of Arc Saved France, 2014)

 

Timeline of Historical Film Colors: Joan the Woman
Developed and curated by Prof. Barbara Flueckiger

Further reading:
Anthony L’Abbate (George Eastman Museum): Joan the Woman (1916), Restored

 

>>>  Georges Méliès: Jeanne d’Arc on this site

The ‘Clochards’ of Paris

Comment les pauvres mangent à Paris
R: Unknown. D: Unknown. P: Pathé Frères. Fr 1910
Print: British Film Institute
German titles
Piano: Günter A. Buchwald

“Charitable organisations and dedicated journalists decried the misery of the slums in industrial cities. ‘Slumming’ was the term used to describe tourist outings or philanthropic day-trips to witness the poverty. Those who eschewed direct confrontation could visit magic lantern shows or the cinema: the photographic and film industries provided a constant supply of new material covering diverse issues of the ‘Social Question’. (…) Comment les pauvres mangent à Paris / How the Poor Dine in Paris (FR 1910) (…) is the first film reportage about the ‘clochards’ of Paris: it is difficult to distinguish the extras acting in the film from the real homeless people.”
Martin Loiperdinger / Ludwig Vogl-Bienek
The Bioscope

“These kinds of films were predecessors of documentary films proper and were, at that time, labelled as ‘actuality films’ (or, as the Lumière Brothers called them, les actualités). However, the argument that can be made for pre-cinematic magic lantern slum shows, can also be made for such early cinematic slum actualités because, as Gunning has emphasised, in this early period ‘actuality films constituted the main product of the cinema rather than fiction filmmaking, and the motion picture camera itself remained the focus of attention.'”
Igor Krstic: Slums on Screen: World Cinema and the Planet of Slums. Edinburgh University Press 2016, p. 62

>>> SOCIAL DRAMA

>>> EARLY DOCUMENTARY FILMS II (Urban Life)

Giant Trees of California, 22mm

Giant Trees of California
R: unknown. P: Thomas A. Edison Inc. USA 1912
Original Print: 22mm for Edison Home Kinetoscope projector

“In December of 2014, The MediaPreserve was tasked with the digital preservation of an unusual film. The California Audiovisual Preservation Project, a coordinated program which aims to preserve the rich heritage of that state through archival digitization of film, video and audio materials, sent us a film in the rare 22mm Edison Home Kinetoscope format. The film, titled Giant Trees of California, comes from the collection of the San Francisco History Center at the San Francisco Public Library.

The Edison Home Kinetoscope (EHK) was a film projector introduced by Thomas A. Edison, Inc. in 1912 to the home and educational markets. The 35mm film used in commercial movie theaters in the first half of the twentieth century was made of highly-f lammable cellulose nitrate but like other home cinema systems of the time, EHK films were produced on a non-f lammable acetate base. Unlike competing systems (…), EHK films consisted of three rows of images on a single strip of film. This configuration was an attempt to squeeze more images onto the film which functionally maximized running time while economizing on film stock and space. Indeed, the shipping canister for Giant Trees of California is a miniscule 1.5 inches high with a diameter of 2.75 inches. The 22mm name by which this format is known describes the entire width of the film and all of its three rows of images. Each frame is less than 4mm by 6mm making it the smallest film gauge to ever find mainstream use.  (…)”
Diana Little: Digitizing Giant Trees of California, a  22mm Edison Home Kinetoscope Film
LBS/Archival Products

>>> EARLY DOCUMENTARY FILMS II (Nature / Science)