Hamlet: Johnston Forbes-Robertson

R: Hay Plumb. B: Wlliam Shakespeare (play). K: Geoffrey Faithfull. D: Walter Ringham, Johnston Forbes-Robertson, S.A. Cookson, J.H. Barnes, Alex Scott-Gatty, Percy Rhodes, Gertrude Elliot, Adeline Bourne, Grendon Bentley, Montague Rutherford, E.A. Ross. P: Hepworth. UK 1913
Playgroup: The Drury Lane Company
Print: BFI National Archive

“In a 1913 interview, Cecil M. Hepworth, the producer, said that this Hamlet was  ‘the most notable event up to the present in the history of British cinema.’ Even allowing for PR-hype, which even then was escalating into a major industry, the film deserves a niche in history as a unique record of the performance of a major 19th-century Shakespearean actor, Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson. Sir Johnston’s electrifying portrayal of Hamlet, along with the Frederic B. Warde King Lear, provides a time capsule for viewing the acting techniques of eminent Victorians. Moreover, since Forbes-Robertson and his colleagues were actually speaking the lines as they declaimed them on the stage of London’s famous Drury Lane theatre, those familiar with the text can follow the play almost word for word. To appreciate this film, you need to know not less but more about Shakespeare’s play. No danger whatsoever exists, as seems to have been the case with the Barker silent Hamlet, that an audience of mutes might decode vile oaths from the actors’ lip movements. (Interview with C. Hepworth: Bioscope 24 July 1913: 275)”
Internet Shakespeare Editions

Hay Plumb‘s Hamlet (1913) made for the Cecil Hepworth company, marks a definite step forward for British Shakespeare films in that it attempts not only to present an entire play but also has cinematic ambitions over and above just pointing the camera at a reconstituted stage production, the method adopted by most of its predecessors. Sourced from a 1913 Drury Lane stage production, it was partly shot on location in Dorset, with interiors created in Hepworth’s Walton-on-Thames studio. (…)
As with virtually all other British Shakespeare silents (with the exception of Percy Stow’s admirably lucid The Tempest of 1908), there is little context-setting or indeed much indication of who is actually speaking when the intertitles appear on screen. These are somewhat sketchy, glossing over many key themes of the play and virtually demanding at least some degree of prior familiarity from the audience. (…)

That aside, it’s a competent production, helped by Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson’s charismatic performance in the title role (he was pushing sixty at the time, but he looks a fair bit younger) – his facial expressions and lively body language help overcome the limitation of the lack of a soundtrack, though this is still keenly felt as there is little overall attempt at reinventing the play for the cinema.
That said, although still fairly primitive – most scenes are still presented as single-shot tableaux – Hamlet does at least make some use of the cinema’s grammar. The camera occasionally moves, several scenes are shot on location, the ghost is conveyed through double exposure and there’s even a brief instance of cross-cutting, as Ophelia’s corpse is discovered while Laertes talks to Claudius.”
Michael Brooke
BFI Screenonline

609 Johnston Forbes-Robertson

“Johnston Forbes-Robertson (1853-1937) was an English actor and theatrical impresario that George Bernard Shaw and other critics considered to be the finest Hamlet (1913) of his generation. Forbes-Robertson had trained to be an artist and was not overly fond of acting, but he took to the boards to make a living. He did his apprenticeship with Samuel Phelps‘ company and made his theatrical debut in 1874. He played the second lead in the company of Henry Irving, indisputably the greatest actor of his generation and the first actor to be knighted. Forbes-Robertson did not play Hamlet until he was 44 years old, but excelled at it. He was famed for his magnificent voice. Other Shakespearean roles he was hailed for were Leontes in ‘The Winter’s Tale’, Othello and Romeo.”
Jon C. Hopwood

>>> more Shakespeare on this website: Shakespeare on Screen

The Wrath of the Gods

The Wrath of the Gods
R: Reginald Barker. B: William H. Clifford, Thomas H. Ince. D: Sessue Hayakawa, Tsuru Aoki, Frank Borzage, Kisaburô Kurihara, Henry Kotani. P: New York Motion Picture (Thomas H. Ince). USA 1914
Special effects: Raymond B. West
Filming Locations: Inceville Studio, Santa Monica, California

“On 12 January 1941, a volcano erupted on the island of  Sakura-Jima in Kagoshima prefecture, in the southern part of Japan. Because of the stream of lava, the island of Sakura-Jima became connected to Osumi Peninsula on Kyushi, one of the main islands of Japan. It was one of the largest disasters in the history of Japan. Thomas H. Ince lost no time in grasping an opportunity to make a film based on this event. (…) The filming of  The Wrath of the Gods began on 27 January 1914, only fifteen days after the eruption, and finished on 13 February. The eruption of Sakura-Jima was not only a subject with hot news value but also a good opportunity for Ince to make a spectular film with an authentic depiction of Japan and its people. (…) Ince wanted to make The Wrath of the Gods his Cabiria. The Wrath of the Gods was far more than a news film or a travelogue. Ince made his project into a spectular melodrama and a sensational event movie by exploiting the exotic landscape and people. Hayakawa was not a star of this film. He was not even a leading character of this project but merely an ingredient to compose the melodrama. Aoki played a leading role in the film but in a strategic manner. First of all, Ince fictionalized Aoki’s birthplace and connected it to the eruption of Sakura-Jima in a tear-jerking way. (…)

In this melodramatic moralistic dichotomy, Japan is not regarded as a modern nation. It is not an indepent existence, but a place somewhere in a totalized primitive region. It is not so much a historical community as an atemporal space where superstitious savages live. In The Wrath of the Gods, the binary axis is not drawn between a historical region and a modern nation-state, but in a more archetypal way between the civilized and the savage. With this de-historicization, the film, which originally has a news or travelogue quality, turns into a melodramatic fable that regards the civilized America and Christianity as good and the primitive space and its religion as evil.”
Daisuke Miyao: Sessue Hayakawa: Silent Cinema and Transnational Stardom. Duke University Press 2007, p. 57-64

>>> Subtle Understatement: Sessue Hayakawa on this website

>>> Reginald Barker films: The CowardThe BargainThe Italian


A Wild West Made in Germany

Die Jagd nach der Hundertpfundnote oder Die Reise um die Welt
R: Willy Zeyn. B: Rudolf del Zopp. K: Georg Paezel. D: Josef Coenen, Hansi Dege, Senta Eichstaedt, Fred Goebel, Karl Harbacher, Cowboy Jenkins, Ernst Körner, Adele Reuter-Eichberg. P: Karl Werner (Berlin/Köln). D 1913

“The episodic structure [of some earlier German films. KK] survives in Die Jagd nach der Hundertpfundnote oder Die Reise um die Welt, a film of the ‘Nobody’ series which was (…) produced in 1913 in Berlin by Karl Werner. The female detective Nobody follows the hero in his journey around the world which he undertakes following a bet with his friends to bring back a particular 100 pound note within three months. At great speed they pass through Cairo, Bombay and Nagasaki to eventually arrive in a Wild West composed of images familiar from American westerns.”
Deniz Göktürk: Moving Images of America in Early German Cinema. In: Thomas Elsaesser, Michael Wedel (ed.): A Second Life: German Cinema’s First Decades. Amsterdam University Press 1996, p. 97

>>> Ruth Roland – a Girl Detective

Traffic in Souls

Traffic in Souls
R: George Loane Tucker. B: Walter MacNamara, George Loane Tucker. K: H. Alderson Leach. D: Jane Gail, Ethel Grandin, William H. Turner, Matt Moore, William Welsh, Millie Liston, Laura McVicker, Irene Wallace, Howard Crampton. P: Independent Moving Pictures Co. of America (IMP). USA 1913

“Advertisements for the film said that it was based on the Rockefeller White Slavery Report and on the investigation of the Vice Trust by District Attorney Whitman. In a news item in 17 Dec 1913 NYDM, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. denied that any films about white-slave traffic had his sanction or were in any way approved by the Bureau of Social Hygiene, through which he conducted his investigations of white-slave traffic. Furthermore, he stated that ‘the use of my name in any such connection is absolutely unauthorized, and that I and those associated with me in this work regard this method of exploiting vice as not only injudicious but positively harmful.’ Var [= Variety] commented, ‘there’s a laugh on the Rockefeller investigators in the play in the personality of one of the white slavers, a physical counterpart of John D., himself so striking as to make the observer sit up and wonder whether the granger of Pocantico Hills really came down to pose for the Universal.’
According to modern sources, the film was cast by IMP editor Jack Cohn and was made without the knowledge of IMP officials. Director Tucker quit IMP and went to the London Film Company in England after Traffic in Souls was shot. Jack Cohn cut it from ten to six reels. The popularity of the film (modern sources claim that it cost $5,700 to make and that it grossed approximately $450,000) touched off a wave of white-slave pictures.
The National Board of Censorship of Motion Pictures viewed the film on 27 Oct 1913 and passed it with five minor alterations.”
AFI Catalog

George Loane Tucker’s 1913 Traffic in Souls (aka ‘While New York Sleeps’), one of our earliest feature-length films, pretended a concern with so-called white slavery while offering audiences the titillation they craved in this era of the earliest film femme fatale — the vamp. Traffic in Souls was a huge hit in its time, providing a solid foundation on which Universal Pictures was built, and earning its place on the National Film Registry as a culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant film. (…)
Technology plays a large role in this film. The manager writes the daily returns on a tablet that form magically on a similar tablet in Trubus’ office, the imagination of the film’s creators prefiguring email. Trubus is unmasked for what he is by Mary, dis-charged from the candy store because of the immorality attached to her sister’s situation — kidnapping is no excuse for low morals, apparently — and hired by Mrs. Trubus (Millie Liston) to replace the sexually loose secretary (Laura McVicker) she has discovered smooching with the manager. Mary learns the truth and brings a microphone her father has invented to eavesdrop on Trubus and his manager —an early phone bug. We also have an early example of product placement — Edison recording cylinders are used to record the conversation the bug picks up.
The precision of the police assault on the brothel is a masterful bit of filmmaking. Loane Tucker builds suspense as the police get their orders and man various positions on top of and surrounding the brothel. When the police storm the building, the camera work is kinetic and dizzying, and Burke’s pursuit of the manager to the roof ends in a quick, realistic way with the manager ending as a slick on the cement below, a scene with which moviegoers are now quite familiar.
The ruin of Trubus is the ruin of his family as well — his daughter’s (Irene Wallace) betrothal to the season’s most eligible bachelor unceremoniously ended and an outraged mob screaming for blood at his predatory hypocrisy, his wife killed by the shock and shame of the double life he has been leading. The audience feels that Lorna has learned her lesson about straying into a willful life of her own, redemp-tion for having thrilled to the madam’s whip hovering over her quivering, tearful form.”
Marilyn Ferdinand

George Loane Tucker became a director in 1910 and went on to make many one-reel films for studios such as IMP and Reliance-Majestic. In 1913, he gained considerable notoriety for making the sensationalistic Traffic in Souls, a racy exposé of white slavery. A tremendous box-office success, the film is credited with starting a trend of increasingly sexy films. Just before the film was released, Tucker had moved to England where he made a few more highly regarded films. In 1917, he returned to the U.S. and continued directing. One of his most acclaimed works was The Miracle Man (1919), the film that featured Lon Chaney in his first starring role. Tucker was highly regarded in Hollywood and when he died of a lingering illness in 1921 at the age of 49, he was hailed as ‘the First of the Immortals”.”
Rotten Tomatoes

>>> Den hvide slavehandel on this site

Capellani’s “Robespierre”

La fin de Robespierre
R: Albert Capellani. B: Paul Gaulot. K: Pierre Trimbach. D: Jacques Grétillat, Georges Saillard, Charles de Rochefort, Marie Ventura, Georges Dorival, Cesare Gravina, Thelès. P: Pathé Frères. Fr 1912
Print: EYE
Dutch titles
Fragment: The end of the film is probably lost.

About Jean-Lambert Tallien (1767-1820)
Tallien [played by Jacques Grétillat] was one of the most active popular leaders in the storming of the Tuileries Palace on 10 August; on that day he was appointed secretary to the insurrectional Commune of Paris. He committed himself to his new mission, and habitually appeared at the bar of the Assembly on behalf of the Commune. He was a direct participant in the September Massacres of 1792, and, with the help of Georges Danton, would eventually be elected a member of the National Convention. He announced the September Massacres in terms of apology and praise, and he sent off the famous circular of 3 September to the French provinces, recommending them to take similar action.  (…) Tallien was of the most notorious envoys sent over to establish the Terror in the provinces, and soon established a revolutionary grip on Bordeaux. (…)

However, after the initial days of his mission in Bordeaux, Tallien began to shift away from his bloody Terrorist tendencies. This tendency may be due to his romantic involvement with Thérésa Cabarrús [Maria Ventura], the stunning daughter of Francisco Cabarrús and former wife of the émigré Marquis de Fontenay. Tallien not only spared her life but fell in love with her. As she was extremely wealthy and desired by many, it is possible that she became involved with Jean Tallien in order to save her neck from the guillotine at Bordeaux and influence Tallien to show lenience towards her aristocratic associates. Tallien suggested, ‘It is better to marry than to be beheaded.’ After Tallien became involved with Cabarrús, there was a notable decline in the number of executions in Bordeaux. (…)

Maximilien Robespierre‘s [Georges Saillard] own political ideas implied his readiness to strike at many of his colleagues in the committees, and Tallien was one of the men condemned. Robespierre’s rivals were determined to strike first. When Tallien was recalled, Thérésa Cabarrús was recaptured and imprisoned. She was set to face trial and likely would have been executed. She sent a letter to Tallien on 26 July, which included a dagger and a note accusing him of weakness for not attempting to free her. Thérésa stated, ‘I die in despair at having belonged to a coward like you.’ The movement was successful: Robespierre and his friends were guillotined, and Tallien, as the leading Thermidorian, was elected to the Committee of Public Safety.”

>>> Charles Kent’s The Days of Terror

Florence Turner & Maurice Costello

The Show Girl
R: Van Dyke Brooke. D: Maurice Costello, Helen Gardner, Florence Turner, Van Dyke Brooke, Kenneth Casey, Lillian Walker, P: Vitagraph Company of America. USA 1911
Print: EYE
Engl. intertitles

“Because of her stage experience, Florence, in 1910, made a tour of the theatres that were showing Vitagraph films around New York City, introducing the music called ‘The Vitagraph Girl.’  (…) The people trying to get in to see the ‘Movie Star’ almost created a riot.  The power of the performers had come. The star system had not been established when Florence Turner was introduced to the film audiences as the ‘Vitagraph Girl.’ (…) At the age of 22, she worked consistently with the matinee idol, Maurice Costello in what were considered Vitagraph’s prestigious films.  Florence Turner and Maurice Costello were described as ‘two famous picture players, whose faces are familiar to everyone who is in the habit of seeing the films.’  Florence was starring in the classics. There was also a 1910 pairing with a new idol of the movies on his road to stardom — a young man by the name of Wallace Reid.”
THE PREHISTORY OF HOLLYWOOD – Looking for Mabel Normand

When Persistency and Obstinacy Meet
R: Van Dyke Brooke. D: Maurice Costello, Florence Turner, Edith Halleran, James Morrison. P: Vitagraph Company of America. USA 1912
Print: EYE
Dutch intertitles

“It seems like harking back to good old days to find Miss Florence Turner and Mr. Maurice Costello playing a good romance together. The peculiarities of this situation, though, do not give much chance to either to portray any of those subtler shades of character which they have given us in the past. Those finer things, especially in Miss Turner’s work, are marvelously pleasing. We are always expecting them, and every picture by the players without them, even in a case like this, where the offering has substantial merit, is somewhat disappointing. Mr. Costello plays the persistency; he is a lover suing for the hand and affection of obstinacy, played by Miss Turner. Not all of it is strongly convincing, the Iover’s dressing as a woman, for instance, nor is all of it fresh. The lover’s paying the expressman to let him deliver the package in the cap and jumper so as to speak to the girl who is in a pet and won’t let him apologize, is not fresh, but it is acted in a natural, straightforward way, has a happy ending, has well trimmed sets and is clearly photographed.”
The Moving Picture World, October 19, 1912

Aunty’s Romance
R: George D. Baker. B: Maurice Costello (scenario), Hanson Durham (play). D: Maurice Costello, Florence Turner, Mary Maurice, Harry T. Morey, William Shea, Edward Thomas, Dorothy Kelly. P: Vitagraph Company of America. USA 1912
Print: EYE
Dutch intertitles

>>> Maurice Costello

>>> Florence Turner and Larry Trimble

Facial Expression

Old Man Drinking a Glass of Beer
R: George Albert Smith. D: Tom Green. P: George Albert Smith Films. UK 1897

Tom Green born in 1852. a popular stage comic and stage manager from the late 1870’s, became a well-known pioneering film actor and director of many early short comedies for the George Albert Smith Film Company from 1897. He also directed many short dramas and trick films for other film studios from 1902 until 1906.”

George Albert Smith was a British filmmaker, among the earliest class of experimenters in the nascent art form in England. Later dubbed part of the loosely defined ‘Brighton School‘ (which included James Williamson, Esmé Collings, Alfred Darling, William Friese-Green, and Charles Urban), Smith only briefly actively made films. (…) Smith was a pseudo-scientist inventor, an entertainer that was kind of a blend between the Lumière brothers and Georges Méliès. In fact, Smith was a pen pal of sorts with Méliès. But Smith also pioneered cinematic language in a way Méliès never did. Smith’s hallmarks were more elaborate continuity editing, close ups, and a non-hand-tinted color film process. He actively made shorts from 1897 to 1903, and again for a couple years from 1906 to 1908 for his Kinemacolor experiments, but he left behind an important legacy. Smith may just be the earliest important British filmmaker besides Robert W. Paul, who influenced the movie business a bit more than the technical or artistic aspects of the medium.”
Tristan Ettleman
The Ranks of the Auteurs: George Albert Smith

“British filmmakers were continuing to experiment. George Albert Smith continued to explore the use of close-ups as a means of clarifying detail and inceasing audience involvement in the action. Films featuring close-ups of faces had been common in Smith’s work: Comic Faces – an Old Man Drinking a Glass of Beer (1898); Grandma Threading Her Needle (1900) (…). These short films used close-ups to parody character types and were intended to be little more than entertaining vignettes. Grandma’s Reading Glass and As Seen through a Telescope had been successful at integrating close-ups with wider shots, but in both instances the use of the close-up had been ‘justifyed’ by using an optical enlarging device to explain the inclusion of the closer detail.”
Don Fairservice: Film Editing: History, Theory and Practice: Looking at the Invisible. Manchester University Press 2001, p. 32

Tom Green – one of the earliest film actors:
>>> The X-Ray Fiend
>>> The Dull Razor
>>> The Death of Poor Joe

Chomón: A King’s Wedding

Boda de Alfonso XIII (The Marriage of Princess Ena and Alphonse XIII, King of Spain)
R: Segundo de Chomón. P: Pathé Frères. Sp / Fr 1906

“On May 17, 1902, at the age of 16, Alfonso was crowned king of Spain. These were troubled times for his country. In 1898 Spain had suffered a humiliating defeat in the Spanish-American War and had lost Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines to the United States. The Catalan and Basque peoples in Spain were demanding autonomy, and in the cities socialist and anarchist labor groups were becoming increasingly violent. Political life was very unstable, and between 1902 and 1906 the young Alfonso had to deal with 14 ministerial crises and 8 different prime ministers.
In May 1921 Alfonso delivered a speech denouncing the parliamentary system in Spain, and in July a Spanish force of 10,000 men was annihilated by rebellious tribes in Spanish Morocco. The army and the monarchy came under increasing criticism. The situation became so critical that in September 1923 Gen. Miguel Primo de Rivera took over the government and set up a military dictatorship. Alfonso supported the dictator, and during a visit to Italy he introduced Primo as ‘my Mussolini.'”

“On May 31, 1906 Alfonso and Victoria [Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, King Edward’s Scottish-born niece. KK] were married in Madrid at the Royal Monastery of San Jeronimo, Victoria having converted to Catholicism two months before. It was a grand affair but the enemies of the monarchy were determined to ruin it. A Catalan anarchist tried to assassinate the royal couple with a bomb. Thankfully, they survived but sadly several bystanders were killed or wounded in the attack. It was an ugly scar on what was otherwise a happy occasion. At the start of their married life, King Alfonso and Queen Victoria Eugenia seemed the ideal, happy, devoted couple. However, things began to change after the birth of their first child, Prince Alfonso of the Asturias. He was born with hemophilia, proving that Victoria had been a carrier after all. Two subsequent daughters and a son were born without the disease but, sadly, their last child and third son was afflicted as well. Despite knowing the facts from the beginning, human nature is what it is and King Alfonso tended to blame his wife for the disease that kept his sons in constant danger and from that time on he became increasingly distant from his wife. After 1914 he then had a succession of mistresses by whom he had six illegitimate children.”

>>> Imperial Cinema on this website

List of Spanish films before 1930


Capellani’s “L’Arlésienne”

R: Albert Capellani. B: Albert Capellani, Alphonse Daudet (novel). D: Jean-Marie de l’Isle, Jeanne Grumbach, Henri Desfontaines, Paul Capellani, Mademoiselle Bouquet, Mademoiselle Bertyl, Henry Krauss. P: Pathé Frères. Fr 1908
Engl. subtitles

“In his own films, Capellani brought the ‘Pathé’ style to its highest level, directing adaptions from the classics of popular literature. Among the earliest were L’Arlésienne (1908), adapted from Alphonse Daudet‘s novel, and L’Assommoire (1909), adapted from Emile Zola, which, at 740 meters, could be considered the first feature film in French cinema. His later multiple-reel films were characterized by a strong sense of verisimilitude, an unusual skill in deploying a variety of editing techniques, and a particular adeptness of staging in depth, which often involved deftly choreography characters and crowds of extras in deep outdoor spaces. Many of these films received very favorable reviews from both the public and the press: among them Le courrier de Lyon (1911), Notre-Dame de Paris (1911), Les mystères de Paris (1913), and Germinal (1913). The most famous of these, of course, was Les Misérables (1912), whose four parts (totaling nearly 3500 meters) brought wordwide recognition.”
Eric le Roy in: Richard Abel: Encyclopedia of Early Cinema. Taylor & Francis 2005, p. 103-104

L’Arlésienne was shot almost entirely on location in Arles. In it we discover the old streets, the Roman amphitheater then used as a bullring, and the vast olive groves. Capellani shows a remarkable sense of pictorialism in his camera angles and lighting effects. The film even contains an astonishing 180-degree panorama. He uses double exposures with amazing virtuosity. Capellani manages to make us feel Frédéric’s torments as he is haunted by the image of the Arlésienne, which appears constantly by his side, even in the presence of his bride. The film captures the poetry of Daudet’s work. This first adaption of a classic was a masterstroke.”
Christine Leteux: Albert Capellani: Pioneer of the Silent Screen. University Press of Kentucky 2015, p. 25


Lea Giunchi – Matchless in Italy

Lea e il gomitolo
(aka “Lea und ihr Knäuel”, German version)
R: Unknown. D: Lea Giunchi, Giuseppe Gambardella, Lorenzo Soderini. P: Società Italiana Cines. It 1913

About Lea Giunchi
During her comic career, Lea partnered with such important comedy actors as Ferdinand Guillaume (Tontolini), Raymond Frau (Kri Kri) and Giuseppe Gambardella (Checco). But her personality as an actress was so exuberant and her physical ability so effervescent that she soon became the principal of a comedy series entitled after her own name: produced by Cines, the ‘Lea’ series counts a dozen titles, covering the years between 1910 and 1916. (…) Giunchi’s acting peculiarity consisted in her ability to combine two different aspects in one single characterization: she made use of her body in a very free way, yet at the same time she also managed to be extremely charming and feminine. (…) Lea made use of both the free and unprejudiced movements of her body and a coquettish femininity: this was quite a revolutionary combination of elements for the time, and Giunchi was the first, and probably the only actress to introduce it in Italian cinema.

Lea’s comedies were made in the same period when the Vamp and the Diva myths were being established, when even a small piece of skin revealed on the screen was enough to intrigue and scandalize both women and men. Just at the same time, Lea’s performances were made of jumps and somersaults and funny circles in which she appeared not just as a beautiful woman, but as the one and only owner of her charming, as well as fairly undressed body. In Lea e il gomitolo (1913) Giunchi destroys her parents’ whole apartment by desperately searching for a lost ball of wool: her frenzy movement, quite similar to a demoniac possession, is a metaphor for Lea’s desperate search for the only female identity she knows and can imagine; by destroying the apartment, she conquers both her right to read in peace and the possibility of an alternative female identity.”
Marzia Ruta: Lea Giunchi: The Story of a Lost Comical Body

605-Lea Giunchi